Brands have been part of human trading activities for a long time. Starting with the appearance of certified money, the first modern branding traces were seen on "Vesuvinum" wine jars found at Pompeii (dated 79 AD). The “Brand” word itself came from cattle marking through “burning” the animals’ skin to mark the producers’ownership, which then evolved to legal trademarking during the industrial revolution.
Brands have then constantly evolved to deliver valuable customer benefits through a known brand indentity which could be decomposed as its distinctive name, unique visual expression (or look), and character (orvalues).
In the early days, brands incarnated both a promise and a personality like any person would have, and theyactually had a real face behind their name. It was often the founder and owner of the business, and people could relate to that person who transmitted his own values to the brand that was in fact a proxy to himself. Brand had therefore necessarily a social dimension with a sense of proximity.




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